Product Background: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a high molecular weight anionic polysaccharide (1,000-10,000 kD) composed of repeating disaccharides and is one of several glycosaminoglycan components of the extracellular matrix of connective tissue.
Free HA is taken up by the liver where it is degraded and recycled. Many chronic liver diseases, including infection (hepatitis B or C), toxicity (alcohol and drugs), genetic (hemochromatosis), autoimmunity, and malignancy, result in liver inflammation which can progress to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis; causing impairment of liver function and resulting in a rapid increase in circulating HA levels.
Data indicates a relationship between HA levels, local inflammation and severity of disease. Recent publications have also shown that HA levels in urine are indicative of bladder cancer, that HA levels are directly correlated to liver disease, and suggests enhanced breakdown of HA in the lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In addition, serum levels of HA have been found to be elevated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
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Featured in Publications: (see the HA ELISA TDS for more references)
1. Meuwese, M. C., H. L. Mooij, et al. (2009). "Partial recovery of the endothelial glycocalyx upon rosuvastatin therapy in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia." J Lipid Res 50(1): 148-153.
2. Vendrov, A. E., N. R. Madamanchi, et al. (2010). "NADPH Oxidases Regulate CD44 and Hyaluronic Acid Expression in Thrombin-treated Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and in Atherosclerosis." Journal of Biological Chemistry 285(34): 26545-26557.
3. B. KIM, et al. (2010). "Retinyl retinoate induces hyaluronan production and less irritation than other retinoids." The Journal of Dermatology 37(5): 448-454.
4. Haserodt, S., M. Aytekin, et al. (2011). "A comparison of the sensitivity, specificity, and molecular weight accuracy of three different commercially available Hyaluronan ELISA-like assays." Glycobiology 21(2): 175-183.
5. Hill, D. R., H. K. Rho, et al. (2013). "Human Milk Hyaluronan Enhances Innate Defense of the Intestinal Epithelium." Journal of Biological Chemistry 288(40): 29090-29104.
6. Measurement of low-molecular height HA: Schmaus, A, Klusmeier, S. et al (2014) "Accumulation of small hyaluronan oligosaccharides in tumour interstitial fluid correlates with lymphatic invasion and lymph node metastasisBr. J. Cancer 111(3): 559-567 "
Related Products: Collagen IV ELISA Kit (K-1700), HA sandwich ELISA (K-4800).
Product Keywords: Hyaluronan, Hyaluronate, Liver Cirrhosis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Hyaluronan, Osteoarthritis, Liver Fibrosis