- Akt1 or Protein Kinase B α (PKBα) is a serine/threonine kinase that belongs to the Akt family. Akt1 is activated in cells in response to diverse stimuli such as hormones, growth factors and extracellular matrix components and is involved in glucose metabolism, transcription, survival, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and cell motility (1). The PI3K generates phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3), a lipid second messenger essential for the translocation of Akt1 to the plasma membrane where it is phosphorylated and activated by phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK-1) (2) and phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-2 (possibly ILK) (3). Akt1 has numerous cellular substrates including proteins, which promote the inhibition of apoptosis such as the Forkhead transcription factors and the Bcl-2 family member Bad (4). In addition, the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors are substrates of Akt which when phosphorylated relinquish their inhibitory influence on cell cycle progression. Akt also me
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- 1. Coffer PJ, Jin J, Woodgett JR. Protein kinase B (c-Akt): a multifunctional mediator of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation. Biochem J. 1998 Oct 1; 335 (Pt 1): 1-13.
2. Anderson KE, Coadwell J, Hawkins PT. Translocation of PDK-1 to the plasma membrane is important in allowing PDK-1 to activate protein kinase B. Curr Biol. 1998 Jun 4;8(12): 684-91.
3. Persad S, Attwell S, Gray V, Mawji N, Deng JT, Leung D, Yan J, Sanghera J, Dedhar S. Regulation of protein kinase B/Akt-serine 473 phosphorylation by integrin-linked kinase: critical roles for kinase activity and amino acids arginine 211 and serine 343. J Biol Chem. 2001 Jul 20; 276(29): 27462-9.
4. Sen P, Mukherjee S, Ray D, Raha S. Involvement of the Akt/PKB signaling pathway with disease processes. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003 Nov; 253(1-2): 241-6.
5.Nicholson KM, Anderson NG. The protein kinase B/Akt signalling pathway in human malignancy. Cell Signal. 2002 May; 14(5): 381-95.